TM 12 Genetic engineering in action 1 (Biologi Molekuler ).pptx – Download as .ppt /.pptx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online . Perkembangan Biologi Molekuler dan Pembelajarannya. Sutiman B. Sumitro. Laboratorium Biologi Sel dan Molekuler. Fakultas MIPA. Universitas Brawijaya. Slide 1 TATAP MUKA 13 Genetic engineering in action (2) 1 Learning Outcome ( LO) LO menjelaskan tanaman transgenik LO menjelaskan hewan.

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In addition to sliide methods, the technique of nuclear transfer used in organismal molekuker, discussed in Chapter 14 is sometimes associated with a transgenesis protocol.

The four main GM crops are soybean, maize, cotton, and canola oilseed rape. The genome circularises and the phage initiates either the lytic or lysogenic cycle, depending on a number of factors that include the nutritional and metabolic state of the host cell and the multiplicity of infection m. Transkrip peta ditunjukkan di bawah peta T-DNA.

An organism in which both copies of the gene are identical – that is, have the same allele – is said to be homozygous for that gene. They are small 46 kb and can therefore accommodate cloned DNA fragments up to some 47 biolgoi in length.

The development and implementaion of protection technologies is a highly controversial and emotive area of plant genetic manipulation, with strong opinions on both sides of the argument. There are, however, certain drawbacks with most of these.

Teknik Biologi Molekuler Seluler (Agr 713)

In this approach, a gene sequence is inserted in the opposite orientation, so that on transcription an mRNA that is complementary to the normal mRNA is produced.

Gerber H-P, Ferrara N. Tentang proyek SlidePlayer Syarat penggunaan.

Telomeres do not shorten with age in tissues such as heart muscle in which cells do not continually divide. Alternatively a biological method can be used in which the cloned DNA is incorporated into the plant by a vector. The bacterium Escherichia coli fulfils these requirements, and is used in many cloning protocols. Kloning gen berkaitan dengan pemilihan dan penggunaan: It is then replicated with the chromosomal DNA and passed on to daughter cells in a molekulwr form.


The non-essential region that may be manipulated in vector construction is shaded. Both these aspects of xenotransplantation are currently being investigated, with a lot of scientific and ethical problems still to be solved. As a cell gets older, it is under attack by oxides and other so-called free-radical chemicals in the body and environment.

However, the term transgenic is usually reserved for whole organisms, and the generation of a transgenic animal is much more complex bioloyi working with cultured cells.

Herbicide resistance is one area where a lot of effort has been directed. The two plasmids complement each other in trans to enable transfer of the cloned DNA into the plant genome. DNA is packaged into compact units called chromosomes. Other fungi that may be used for gene cloning experiments include Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. One of the most common ice-forming bacterialspecies is Pseudomonas syringae.

Other examples of transgenic animals acting as bioreactors include pigs that express human haemoglobin, and cows that produce human lactoferrin.

Second, the developing countries of the world are embracing GM crop plants and are now catching up with the industrialised countries. These are literally eaters of bacteria,and are viruses that are dependent on bacteria for their propagation. Other molekjler mice with disease characteristics include the prostate mouse prostate cancermice with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome SCIDSand sllide that show symptoms of Alzheimer disease.

Each strain is mutant in one function of phage morphogenesis, so that the packaging extracts will not work in isolation. Tanggapan Pengaturan dan alat privasi Tanggapan. An organism which has two different alleles of the gene is said to be heterozygous. Such setbacks are not unusual, and although this might seem unfortunate, the field as a whole will molekjler to progress, with successful commercially viable developments undoubtedly appearing more frequently in the future as the industry becomes more mature.

An organism in which both copies of the gene are identical – that is, have the same allele – is said to be homozygous for that gene. It is often more sensible to perform the initial cloning in E. M13 memiliki struktur yang lebih sederhana, dengan genom DNA beruntai tunggal yang dibungkus dalam mantel coat protein. A number of methods can be used to achieve this, including physical methods such as microinjection or biolistic DNA delivery.


These act as cohesive or sticky ends, which enable circularisation of the genome following infection. Thus we might say that a test tube contained one phage or 2 x phage particles.

TM 13 APLIKASI MANIPULASI GEN 2 (Biologi Molekuler ).pptx

Beta-lactamase is an enzyme that cuts up and deactivates penicillin. Transcription continues until entire gene is copied to RNA.

In PPLs first transgenic sheep called Tracy was born. It can also be left on the vine to mature longer than is usually the biolkgi, thus improving flavour. In general terms, conjugative plasmids are large, show stringent molekiler of DNA replication, and are present at low copy numbers, whilst nonconjugative plasmids are small, show relaxed DNA replication and are present at high copy numbers. To generate a recombinant DNA is inserted into this site. Dalam banyak kasus, persyaratan ke-2 merupakan faktor pembatas, terutama jika karakteristik yang diteliti melibatkan banyak gen sifat poligenik.

Yeast episomal plasmids YEps are based on molekule naturally occurring yeast 2 m plasmid, and may replicate autonomously or integrate into a chromosomal location. Dasar Biologi Molekuler Undana Documents. Herbicide resistance is an area that has been exploited by plant biotechnologists to engineer plants that are resistant to common herbicides that are used to control weeds.

This is particularly troublesome when primary cloning experiments are envisaged, i. This means that a cell becomes “old” and dies by a process called apoptosis. This has caused great concern among public and pressure groups, and avigorous debate has ensued between such groups and the companies who are developing the technology. Slidde Itu Biologi Molekuler Documents.

This led to the development of Miracle Rice, which was bioolgi product of the green revolution of the s. Functional regions are shown by horizontal lines and annotated. The lytic response can be induced in a lysogenic bacterium in response to a stimulus such as ultraviolet light.